“Postpartum is a quest back to yourself. Alone in your body again. You will never be the same, you are stronger than you were.” -Amethyst Joy [1]

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mental health disorder that affects women after childbirth. Feelings of sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion characterize it. PPD can impact a mother’s ability to care for herself and her baby. Early identification and support are crucial for managing and treating PPD.

What Is Postpartum Depression?

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-V), postpartum depression (PPD) is a mental health disorder that affects women post-childbirth. It is characterized by feelings of extreme anxiety, sadness, and exhaustion that can interfere with daily functioning and bonding with the newborn. PPD typically occurs within the first few weeks or months following delivery but can persist for a year or longer if left untreated. [2]


Research suggests that hormonal changes, specifically the sudden drop in estrogen and progesterone levels after childbirth, play a significant role in developing PPD. Other factors, such as a personal or family history of depression, lack of social support, sleep deprivation, and stressful life events, can also contribute to its onset. [3]


An estimated one in seven women experiences peripartum depression. Healthcare providers, family members, and friends need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of PPD to provide support and ensure the well-being of new mothers, as early identification and intervention are crucial in managing PPD. [4]

Symptoms Of Postpartum Depression

Postpartum depression (PPD) is characterized by symptoms that can significantly impact a new mother’s emotional well-being. Common symptoms associated with PPD are:


Symptoms Of Postpartum Depression


  1. Persistent Sadness And Feelings Of Hopelessness: Women with PPD may experience prolonged sadness, tearfulness, or a general sense of emptiness. They may also lack joy or interest in activities they once enjoyed.
  2. Extreme Fatigue And Lack Of Energy: PPD can cause significant fatigue and exhaustion, even with sufficient rest. This can make it challenging for mothers to perform daily tasks or care for their newborns.
  3. Changes In Appetite And Sleep Patterns: PPD may disrupt a woman’s eating and sleeping patterns. Some may experience a loss of appetite and have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep, while others may engage in emotional eating or oversleeping.
  4. Irritability, Agitation, And Anger: Women with PPD may exhibit increased irritability, frequent mood swings, and a short temper. They may feel easily overwhelmed, agitated, or frustrated by minor issues.
  5. Anxiety And Excessive Worry: PPD can manifest as intense anxiety, often characterized by excessive worrying about the baby’s health and well-being. Mothers may experience racing thoughts, restlessness, and physical symptoms such as heart palpitations or shortness of breath.

These symptoms may cause new mothers to feel ashamed, isolated, or guilty. To be diagnosed with postpartum depression, symptoms must occur either during pregnancy or within four weeks after delivery. [4], [5]

Causes Of Postpartum Depression

The causes of postpartum depression (PPD) are multifactorial and involve a complex interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors. Here are some of the causes of PPD:


Causes Of Postpartum Depression


  1. Hormonal Changes: The dramatic drop in hormone levels after childbirth, particularly estrogen and progesterone, is believed to contribute to PPD. These hormonal fluctuations can affect neurotransmitter systems involved in mood regulation.
  2. Genetic Predisposition: Research suggests a genetic component to PPD. Women with a personal or family history of depression or other mood disorders may be at an increased risk.
  3. Psychological Factors: Pre-existing mental health conditions, such as a history of depression or anxiety, can make women more susceptible to PPD. Additionally, experiencing high-stress levels, low self-esteem, or unrealistic expectations of motherhood can contribute to its development.
  4. Social Support: Lack of social support, including limited emotional support, strained relationships, or inadequate assistance with childcare, can increase the risk of PPD.
  5. Life Stressors: Significant life events, such as financial difficulties, marital problems, or traumatic childbirth experiences, can trigger PPD.

Perhaps, a combination of these factors is likely to cause PPD, and each woman’s experience may differ. [6]

Effects Of Postpartum Depression

“Honestly, sometimes I still think I have to deal with [postpartum depression]. I think people need to talk about it more because it’s almost like the fourth trimester; it’s part of the pregnancy. I remember one day, I couldn’t find Olympia’s bottle, and I got so upset I started crying… because I wanted to be perfect for her.” -Serena Williams. [7]


Postpartum depression (PPD) can significantly affect the mother and her infant. Some of the effects of PPD are:


Effects Of Postpartum Depression


  1. Impact on Mothers: PPD can impair a mother’s ability to care for herself and her newborn. It can lead to decreased bonding with the baby, difficulty establishing breastfeeding, and reduced responsiveness to the infant’s needs. PPD may also affect the mother’s overall well-being, relationships, and quality of life.
  2. Impact on Infants: Infants of mothers with PPD may exhibit developmental delays, poor emotional regulation, and impaired social interaction. Research suggests that infants of depressed mothers may be at higher risk of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional difficulties later in life.
  3. Family Dynamics: PPD can strain relationships within the family unit, leading to increased conflict, disrupted communication, and decreased partner or family support. Siblings of the newborn may also be affected by the mother’s condition.
  4. Long-Term Consequences: PPD has been associated with an increased risk of recurrent depression in future pregnancies and beyond. It can have long-lasting effects on the mother’s mental health and overall functioning.

Early identification, intervention, and support are crucial to minimize the adverse effects of PPD on both the mother and her infant. [8]

How To Overcome Postpartum Depression?

Overcoming postpartum depression (PPD) requires a comprehensive approach involving various strategies. Here are some ways how to address and overcome PPD:


How To Overcome Postpartum Depression?


  1. Seek Professional Help: Consulting a healthcare provider experienced in perinatal mental health is crucial. They can diagnose accurately and recommend appropriate treatment options, such as therapy or medication.
  2. Psychotherapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) have effectively treated PPD. These therapies help individuals identify and modify negative thought patterns, develop coping strategies, and improve interpersonal relationships.
  3. Social Support: Building a solid support network is essential. Connecting with family, friends, and support groups can provide emotional validation, practical assistance, and a sense of belonging.
  4. Self-care: Prioritizing self-care activities, such as exercise, proper nutrition, sufficient sleep, and engaging in enjoyable activities, can promote overall well-being and aid in PPD recovery.
  5. Involvement Of Partner And Family: Involving partners and family members in the treatment process and ensuring their understanding of PPD can enhance support and contribute to the healing process.
  6. Medication (if necessary): In severe cases, healthcare providers may prescribe antidepressant medication to alleviate symptoms of PPD. It is essential to discuss potential benefits and risks with a healthcare professional.

It is important to remember that recovery from PPD takes time, and a personalized treatment plan is essential. Collaboration with healthcare providers and a supportive environment dramatically contributes to overcoming PPD. [9]


Postpartum depression is a significant mental health concern that can harm mothers and their infants. With appropriate diagnosis and intervention, including therapy, medication, social support, and self-care, women experiencing PPD can find relief and regain their well-being. It is essential to raise awareness, promote early detection, and provide comprehensive support systems to address and overcome postpartum depression effectively.


If you are battling postpartum depression, connect with our expert counselors or explore more content at United We Care! At United We Care, a team of wellness and mental health experts will guide you with the best methods for your well-being.


[1] “10 Motherhood Quotes That We Absolutely Love — Bloome Wellness & Recovery,” Bloome Wellness & Recovery, May 12, 2021. 

[2] G. P. de A. Moraes, L. Lorenzo, G. A. R. Pontes, M. C. Montenegro, and A. Cantilino, “Screening and diagnosing postpartum depression: when and how?,” Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 54–61, Mar. 2017, doi: 10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0034.

[3] K. Cordes, I. Egmose, J. Smith-Nielsen, S. Køppe, and M. S. Væver, “Maternal touch in caregiving behavior of mothers with and without postpartum depression,” Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 49, pp. 182–191, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2017.09.006.

[4] S. Davé, I. Petersen, L. Sherr, and I. Nazareth, “Incidence of Maternal and Paternal Depression in Primary Care,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 164, no. 11, Nov. 2010, doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.184.

[5] C. T. Beck, “Predictors of Postpartum Depression,” Nursing Research, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 275–285, Sep. 2001, doi: 10.1097/00006199-200109000-00004.

[6] E. Robertson, S. Grace, T. Wallington, and D. E. Stewart, “Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a synthesis of recent literature,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 289–295, Jul. 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2004.02.006.

[7] “Serena Williams on sisterhood, self-acceptance and staying strong,” Harper’s BAZAAR, May 30, 2018.

[8] T. Field, “Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: A review,” Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1–6, Feb. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.005.

[9] C. Zauderer, “Postpartum Depression: How Childbirth Educators Can Help Break the Silence,” Journal of Perinatal Education, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 23–31, Jan. 2009, doi: 10.1624/105812409×426305.

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